(See also, Amsterdam, treaty of)
Amsterdam, treaty of:
(1997) ‘Signed formally on 2 October 1997, the treaty was both a product and tool of advancing European integration. As the third major revision of the treaty of Rome (see also Single European Act; Maastricht Treaty), it attempted to improve the efficiency of European Union institutions, particularly by extending ‘co-desicion’ between the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament. A limited success, it was more one stage in the evolution of the European Union’.
(See also Single European Act; Maastricht Treaty)
(1992) ‘major treaty revision of the European Union (EU) consisting of three main ‘pillars’: (1) the new European Community with builds on existing treaties and includes economic and monetary union; (2) the common foreign and security policy; (3) justice and home affairs (police and judicial cooperation action, immigration and asylum policy). Whilst pillar (1) retained and extended the supranational element pf the European Community, pillars (2) and (3) explicitly specified intergovernmental cooperation. Within this framework, the treaty also extended the powers of the European parliament, established a committee of the regions and a new cohesion fund to assist poorer regions within the EU, and adopted the principle of subsidiarity (which requires policy decisions to be taken at the appropriate level-local , regional, national, or European). The treaty was only narrowly ratified in France and needed a second referendum in Denmark, whilst the British required an *opt-out from economic and monetary union and from social policy before accepting it. Nevertheless, the agenda set by the treaty remained firmly in place, although far from complete by the end of the 1990’s’.
References: C. H. Church & D. Phinnemore, ‘European Union and European Community: A Handbook and Commentary, on the 1992 Maastricht Treaties’, second edition., London, 1995.